操作系统技术,云计算应用

Linux_磁盘管理

一、linux磁盘管理

  1. 命令:fdisk -l
  2. brwx-rw— 其中b(占位符)代表block,块设备文件
  3. sda,sdb… –> 硬盘 其中sda1,sda2..sdb1,sdb2…–>硬盘分区 (s:硬盘接口;d:disk)
    • 了解硬盘接口:stata,sas –> 服务器借口
    •          scsi,ide   –> 个人电脑接口
    • fdisk -l 后有个  cylinder     : 磁柱
      • 起始与结束
      • 查看硬盘是否分区
  4. 虚拟机添加新硬盘(单个文件),重新启动,分区
    1. 概念:主分区(格式化后直接使用),扩展分区(格式化后还要进行逻辑分区才能使用),逻辑分区(与主分区类似,但非系统分区)
    2. 利用fdisk /dev/sdb来对sdb(新加的硬盘)进行分区
    3. 分区步骤:分一个10G的主分区,剩下的为扩展分区,再从扩展分区中分出两块逻辑分区,结构为2+1
    4. 分区保存后,重启使分区文件加载生效
    5. 格式化:mkfs.文件系统(ext1,ext2,ext3,ext4,centos 7 使用的文件系统xfs) 例:mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdb6
    6. 格式化完毕,还需要挂载磁盘(mount临时的,用法mount /dev/sdb6 /mnt/(一般挂载点)),才能使用
    7. 若要永久挂载,需要写入配置文件/etc/fstab
    8. 取消挂载 umount /mnt/
    9. 查看挂载信息,容量等信息(df -h)

二、实际操作

[root@hadoop09-linux ~]# fdisk /dev/sdb
Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabel
Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x2859532e.
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
After that, of course, the previous content won't be recoverable.

Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)

WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to
         switch off the mode (command 'c') and change display units to
         sectors (command 'u').

Command (m for help): m
Command action
   a   toggle a bootable flag
   b   edit bsd disklabel
   c   toggle the dos compatibility flag
   d   delete a partition
   l   list known partition types
   m   print this menu
   n   add a new partition
   o   create a new empty DOS partition table
   p   print the partition table
   q   quit without saving changes
   s   create a new empty Sun disklabel
   t   change a partition's system id
   u   change display/entry units
   v   verify the partition table
   w   write table to disk and exit
   x   extra functionality (experts only)

Command (m for help): n
Command action
   e   extended
   p   primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-2610, default 1): 
Using default value 1
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1-2610, default 2610): +10G

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x2859532e

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1               1        1306    10490413+  83  Linux

Command (m for help): n
Command action
   e   extended
   p   primary partition (1-4)
e
Partition number (1-4): 2
First cylinder (1307-2610, default 1307): 
Using default value 1307
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1307-2610, default 2610): 
Using default value 2610

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x2859532e

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1               1        1306    10490413+  83  Linux
/dev/sdb2            1307        2610    10474380    5  Extended

Command (m for help): n
Command action
   l   logical (5 or over)
   p   primary partition (1-4)
l
First cylinder (1307-2610, default 1307): 
Using default value 1307
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1307-2610, default 2610): +4G

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x2859532e

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1               1        1306    10490413+  83  Linux
/dev/sdb2            1307        2610    10474380    5  Extended
/dev/sdb5            1307        1829     4200966   83  Linux

Command (m for help): n
Command action
   l   logical (5 or over)
   p   primary partition (1-4)
l
First cylinder (1830-2610, default 1830): 
Using default value 1830
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1830-2610, default 2610): +4G

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x2859532e

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1               1        1306    10490413+  83  Linux
/dev/sdb2            1307        2610    10474380    5  Extended
/dev/sdb5            1307        1829     4200966   83  Linux
/dev/sdb6            1830        2352     4200966   83  Linux

Command (m for help): m
Command action
   a   toggle a bootable flag
   b   edit bsd disklabel
   c   toggle the dos compatibility flag
   d   delete a partition
   l   list known partition types
   m   print this menu
   n   add a new partition
   o   create a new empty DOS partition table
   p   print the partition table
   q   quit without saving changes
   s   create a new empty Sun disklabel
   t   change a partition's system id
   u   change display/entry units
   v   verify the partition table
   w   write table to disk and exit
   x   extra functionality (experts only)

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.
[root@hadoop09-linux ~]# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00062208

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *           1          39      307200   83  Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda2              39        2358    18631680   83  Linux
/dev/sda3            2358        2611     2031616   82  Linux swap / Solaris

Disk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x2859532e

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1               1        1306    10490413+  83  Linux
/dev/sdb2            1307        2610    10474380    5  Extended
/dev/sdb5            1307        1829     4200966   83  Linux
/dev/sdb6            1830        2352     4200966   83  Linux
[root@hadoop09-linux ~]# reboot

Broadcast message from root@hadoop09-linux.ibeifeng.com
	(/dev/pts/0) at 8:51 ...

The system is going down for reboot NOW!
[root@hadoop09-linux ~]# 
Connection closed by foreign host.

Disconnected from remote host(CentOs_64) at 23:52:01.

Type `help' to learn how to use Xshell prompt.
[d:\~]$ 

Connecting to 192.168.0.108:22...
Connection established.
To escape to local shell, press 'Ctrl+Alt+]'.

Last login: Wed Sep  7 08:27:29 2016 from 192.168.0.105
[root@hadoop09-linux ~]# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00062208

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *           1          39      307200   83  Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda2              39        2358    18631680   83  Linux
/dev/sda3            2358        2611     2031616   82  Linux swap / Solaris

Disk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x2859532e

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1               1        1306    10490413+  83  Linux
/dev/sdb2            1307        2610    10474380    5  Extended
/dev/sdb5            1307        1829     4200966   83  Linux
/dev/sdb6            1830        2352     4200966   83  Linux
[root@hadoop09-linux ~]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdb6
mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
262944 inodes, 1050241 blocks
52512 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=1077936128
33 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
7968 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks: 
	32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736

Writing inode tables: done                            
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

This filesystem will be automatically checked every 34 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first.  Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
[root@hadoop09-linux ~]# mount /dev/sdb6 /mnt/
[root@hadoop09-linux ~]# df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda2              18G  2.5G   15G  15% /
tmpfs                 495M   72K  495M   1% /dev/shm
/dev/sda1             291M   33M  243M  12% /boot
/dev/sdb6             4.0G  137M  3.7G   4% /mnt

  永久挂载

[root@hadoop09-linux ~]# vi /etc/fstab 

#
# /etc/fstab
# Created by anaconda on Fri Sep  2 08:10:36 2016
#
# Accessible filesystems, by reference, are maintained under '/dev/disk'
# See man pages fstab(5), findfs(8), mount(8) and/or blkid(8) for more info
#
UUID=517d46c1-d4c6-41ba-94f7-b0cac93f178b /                       ext4    defaults        1 1
UUID=75090abd-0581-411d-863a-73d735fb90df /boot                   ext4    defaults        1 2
UUID=25865ffd-404c-49c2-afba-374d7a5a81df swap                    swap    defaults        0 0
tmpfs                   /dev/shm                tmpfs   defaults        0 0
devpts                  /dev/pts                devpts  gid=5,mode=620  0 0
sysfs                   /sys                    sysfs   defaults        0 0
proc                    /proc                   proc    defaults        0 0
/etc/sdb6               /mnt                    ext4    defaults        0 0

  

 

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